Cultural Narratives 2023-08-24T04:23:17+07:00 Fitri Ammalia Dwi Astini [email protected] Open Journal Systems <p align="justify"><strong>Cultural Narratives </strong>publishes high-quality articles in the field of cultural studies, linguistics, and Literature. The journal invites scientists, lecturers, teachers, and practitioners throughout the world to disseminate topics of cultural studies focusses on minorities, diversity, and group studies, that cover but are not limited to Indonesian studies, Asian Studies, Literary criticism, Literary theory, Language studies, Linguistics, Translation, Discourse Analysis, and Language Acquisition, but limited to language teaching.</p> <p align="justify"><strong>Cultural Narratives </strong> is a double-blind peer-reviewed, scientific journal published three times annually – every April, August, and December by CV Era Digital Nusantara</p> Arvin's Realistic Personality Development in Donald Ray Pollock’s The Devil All the Time 2023-08-16T00:33:32+07:00 Mochammad Ibnu Prasetyo Utomo [email protected] Muizzu Nurhadi [email protected] Dheny Jatmiko [email protected] <p>The purpose of this research is to analyse the personality development and the factors that influence the personality development of Arvin, in The Devil All the Time by Donald Ray Pollock. The researcher sets three formulations of the problem to be analysed the first is identifying Arvin’s basic personality. The second is identifying Arvin's personality development. Third is identifying the factors that cause Arvin's personality development. To analyze the formulation of the problem, the researcher uses character theory and characterization to identify Arvin's basic personality, then uses Elizabeth B. Hurlock's personality development theory to identify personality development and the factors that influence Arvin's personality development. The results of this study found that the first is Arvin's basic personality, namely innocent child, obeying his father's orders, and having strong faith. Second is Arvin's personality development, namely from an innocent child to a skeptical mind, from a faithfulness child to a rebellious child, and from having strong faith to losing faith. Third, factors that influence Arvin's development are physical changes, changes in the family, changes in the environment, and significant people. However, from the four personality development factors that the researcher found, significant people have the most influence on Arvin's personality development. The conclusion is that Arvin experienced personality development from a good child to a realistic and rude child, this factor was caused by a significant person, namely his father.</p> 2023-09-24T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Mochammad Ibnu Prasetyo Utomo, Muizzu Nurhadi, Dheny Jatmiko C.S. Lewis’ Types of Love Portrayed in Sally Rooney’s Normal People 2023-08-13T15:41:50+07:00 Adelia Sri Wahyu Ningsih [email protected] Mateus Rudi Supsiadji [email protected] <p>This study aims to analyse the types of love in Sally Rooney’s Normal People. The objective of this study is to find the types of love that exist between the characters in the story. In analysing the story, the writers apply C.S. Lewis’ theory of love. The theory explains that there are four types of love, namely storge, philias, eros, and agape. The research method is descriptive qualitative research. The analysis is conducted by using intrinsic and extrinsic approaches. The intrinsic approach is applied in this study because the study deals with the characters in the novel. The extrinsic sociological approach is used to analyse love types. The data are taken from Normal People that is written by Sally Rooney. The findings show that through the characters, the novel discusses different types of love. There are only three types of love seen in the novel Normal People. The first type of storge or familial happens can be pictured through the interactions of Connell, Lorraine, and Marianne. The second type of philias or friendship is depicted in the interactions of Marianne, Connell, Joanna, and Niall. The last type of eros or romantic love happens to the character of Marianne and Connell. The conclusion, in Normal People love exists in every single person and it has some different types that happen between family, friends, and couples.</p> 2023-08-24T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Adelia Sri Wahyu Ningsih, Mateus Rudi Supsiadji Empowerment in Seven Selected American Songs 2023-08-08T08:22:36+07:00 Desi Lailatul Rohmah [email protected] Pininta Veronika Silalahi [email protected] <p>The recent study aims to analyse the ideational and interpersonal meaning in seven selected empowerment songs’ lyrics. The objectives of the study are to describe the characteristics and types of interpersonal meaning: mood and modality; and the types of transitivity processes. The research design applied in this study is descriptive qualitative. The data is the lyrics of seven selected songs: <em>Brave</em> by Sara Barelies; <em>Fireworks</em>, and <em>Roar</em> by Katy Perry; <em>Who Says </em>by Selena Gomez; <em>Love Myself</em> by Hailee Steinfeld; <em>Fight Song</em> by Rachel Platten; and <em>I love Me</em> by Demi Lovato. The finding shows the dominant mood of all the lyrics is declarative mood; and the modality are: “can” in song 1; “wouldn’t” and “would” in song 2; “don’t have to”, “cannot”, and “could” in song 3; “can’t” in song 5; “can”, “might”, and “will” in song 6; “can’t” and “should” in song 7. Further, the analysis showed that all the transitivity process found in the lyrics include: material, mental, relational, behavioural, verbal, and existential.</p> 2023-08-16T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Desi Lailatul Rohmah, Pininta Veronika Silalahi Kiko’s Anxiety In Akemi Dawn Bowman’s Starfish 2023-08-08T08:24:01+07:00 Kresenstia Heldiana Seda [email protected] Mateus Rudi Supsiadji [email protected] <p>This article aims to discuss the issue of anxiety in Akemi Dawn Bowman's Starfish. The objectives of this study are to find the causes, effects, and types of anxiety experienced by the main character in the story. This study uses the psychoanalysis theory by Sigmund Freud to analyze Kiko's anxiety. The research method applied in this study is qualitative, with a psychology of literature approach. From the results of the analysis, there are four causes of the anxiety experienced by Kiko. The first is an experience that happens to Kiko in the past, caused by her uncle. The second is the conflict between Kiko and her mother. The third is Kiko’s environment, and the last is frustration. The effects of Kiko's anxiety are emotional effect and social anxiety. This can be seen from her feelings of anger because of the dispute that occurs between Kiko and her mother. Therefore, it can be concluded that Kiko's anxiety is categorized as neurotic and realistic anxiety. Neurotic anxiety comes from the id, which is an unconscious feeling so that it often loses its emotions such as sadness, anger, panic, and so on. Realistic anxiety occurs when there is a sense of fear of approaching danger.</p> 2023-08-16T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Kresenstia Heldiana Seda, Mateus Rudi Supsiadji